In one of the most anticipated and significant weapons tests, the India-Israel LR-SAM, a joint development of the Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and India's DRDO, will be test-fired from the Indian Navy destroyer INS Kolkata before the end of this year. Preparatory tests are currently on on the platform, with a test likely before Christmas, likely in the November-December period. In May this year, the Israeli Navy began hot trials of the weapon system that saw its first developmental test launch a year ago in Israel. It has also reliably been learnt that the range of the final weapon will be significantly greater than initially agreed upon by the two developmental teams — where India develops and produces the missile's smokeless pulsed rocket motor and Israel the seeker and on-board avionics — sending the weapon's range to above 100 km. The LR-SAM system has been a long-standing requirement for the Indian Navy, but will almost certainly be developed for the Indian Army and Indian Air Force for its long range air defence requirements, both of which currently exist. The LR-SAM, which was birthed from an original requirement to give the Indian Navy a point defence weapon has blossomed into a hopefully more capable weapon, built for aerial threats across the spectrum.